towing safety tips
Towing a caravan/trailer is not difficult if you follow our safety tips.
weight of caravan or trailer
The law allows a vehicle to tow up to 1.5 times its kerb mass. But be sure to check your owner's handbook for the car manufacturer's recommended maximum towing mass, as some vehicles are not suitable for towing up to the legal limit. RACV recommends that slightly less than the applicable limit is towed so as to ensure that there will always be a reserve of power available and that the engine of the tow vehicle will not be constantly working at near its maximum.
Towing a caravan greatly increases the stress placed on the safety limits of any car. It is essential that the car is in first class mechanical condition, with special attention to brakes, steering, suspension, tyres and most importantly the cooling system. If the tow vehicle is an automatic, it is essential that a transmission oil cooler is fitted.
short trips at first
Complete a few short towing trips at first, gradually increasing the distance travelled, before embarking on a long trip. This allows you to familiarise yourself with the rig, to get to understand the feel of the weight of the van on the back of the car, to understand the adjustments necessary when accelerating, braking and especially overtaking.
drive to a plan
When heading off on the first trip, an early start is recommended, as this will give you the advantage of light traffic conditions and assist in developing the feel of the caravan on the back of the car.
Before moving the caravan at any time, make a routine check to ensure that everything is in order for travelling. Power, water and waste water services should be disconnected, gas bottle turned off, all windows and cupboards fastened, parking legs fully raised, step up and jockey wheel removed. Most important, check that the coupling electrical connection and chains are properly located and secure. Have someone assist you in checking that all the tail/brake lights indicators and side marker lights are working properly, including the rear number plate light.
The tyres on the caravan must be all the same, have good tread and no cracks in the sidewalls. Tyre pressures must be maintained at least to the recommended pressure by the caravan manufacturer or the tyre manufacturer.
Remember to check caravan tyres regularly. Tyres can deteriorate quite considerably if the caravan is sitting idle on its tyres for many months of the year or they have been exposed to the weather.
towbars and hitches
There are many types of towbars/tow hitches available to suit different cars. The most satisfactory system is a load distribution hitch, which returns both the car and the caravan to a level position, once it is properly set up. It is best to consult with a specialist in this field for your particular rig.
The most effective and efficient type of brakes today are electric brakes, which operate when the brake lights on the car operate. They have the big advantage where they can be operated separately from the car by a hand control inside the car. This means that the caravan is never pushing onto the rear of the car, which is often when the caravan can start to sway.
An increase in the fuel consumption is to be expected when towing a caravan. Also if the car is used continuously for towing, a reduction in the overall life of the car must be expected.
When moving off from stationary, take your time to avoid harsh acceleration, as the only result will be excess use of fuel with the extra load. With a manual car when starting on a steep hill, where possible, allow the rig to roll back several metres with the steering wheel turned so that the car and the caravan are at an angle to each other. This will dramatically relieve the load on the clutch, as the first few metres the car moves, it is only straightening the caravan out and is not pulling the full weight.
Even with the latest electric braking systems, it is essential to allow a greater distance to slow or stop than the distance you would allow with only the car. In fact, forward planning when applied properly can often reduce the number of times that you will actually stop at traffic lights. When you are approaching a set of traffic lights that are red, gently slacken off the power, so that you take longer to get to the lights, and quite often you will find that the lights will change and you can go through without coming to a stop. This practice also improves the fuel economy of the tow vehicle, because you are not starting the whole rig from stationary at every set of traffic lights.
use of gears
When climbing hills, don't wait until the car is struggling to decide to change down to a lower gear, as the car will only struggle again after the gear change. In automatic cars, change down to second gear to prevent the transmission from hunting up and down from gear to gear.
On steep downgrades it is very important to change down to a lower gear to assist the brakes, or even better, to reduce the need to use the brakes. It is not unusual for the brakes to overheat during a long decent, when the driver neglects to select a lower gear.
With a four-speed automatic, unless you are on a flat road with no head wind, it is probably better to leave the gears in third, again to prevent the transmission from changing up and down all the time.
When taking corners, it is important to remember the extra length of the rig. For a left turn, approach a little further out from the side of the road. Always allow the car to continue straight for a few metres. This will prevent the caravan from being too close to the side of the road, with the potential of colliding into a shop verandah, power pole, etc.
The most dangerous thing that a caravan can do is to develop sway. With the modern load distributing hitches that are available, a properly set up and loaded caravan, sway is almost eliminated. If you have a caravan/car combination that continues to sway, you should consult with the experts to have the problem rectified.
sway in high winds
High winds, especially side winds, can cause sway. The direction and strength of wind can be determined by observing trees on the side of the road or wind socks near ravines. There can be some situations where you should make the decision not to tow the rig at all, when there are extremely high winds blowing.
sway when being overtaken
Sway can be caused when a large vehicle like a semi-trailer, B Double or a Road Train is going to overtake your rig.
Try to be aware of any vehicles that are going to overtake you and where possible give them as much room as you safely can
As the large vehicle commences to overtake you, with the accelerator still pulling your rig, gently apply the caravan brakes only, with the hand control. This will make the caravan pull backwards on the car, which has a straightening out effect on the whole rig.
Never use the foot brake in this situation, even if your rig is fitted with electric brakes.
Reversing is often considered a nightmare with a caravan, but it is not as difficult as it may seem. It just needs some thought and for the driver to take their time.
To reverse around a corner, like parking into the caravan parking bay, there are four movements:
- Point the caravan in the direction you wish it to go.
- Get the car to basically follow the caravan where it is going and maintain a manageable angle between car and caravan.
- Bring the car in a straight line with the caravan.
- Straighten the car wheels.
It sounds complicated, but if it is taken one step at a time the technique will gradually develop. At any time you must be prepared to stop, get out and take a look at what the rig is doing, so that you can be fully aware of what happens at each stage. Like any new procedure it only takes practice.
manoeuvring by hand
There are times where it maybe more practical to remove the caravan from the car and manoeuvre it by hand. In this situation, if the ground is uneven or slopes, make sure that you can keep control of the caravan handbrake to prevent it running away from you. If the caravan does start to get away, immediately stop it, lock on the handbrake, step back and take a break while you consider the situation.