Elliot Fishman, director of Melbourne’s Institute for Sensible Transport (IST), says as Australian cities become denser, commuters tend to use cars less efficiently. “At suburban railway stations, 30 to 40 per cent of cars will have travelled one to two kilometres to take up a car parking spot for eight or nine hours,” he says. “Achieving efficiency in terms of energy and space is something we need to work harder on.”
The terms ‘first mile’ or ‘last mile’ travel describe the short commute from home to meet a main form of transport – typically a train, tram or bus – and/or an onwards commute from that transport to the workplace. These trips are considered the most complex and difficult to cater for, since every commuter has a different starting point and destination.
Stuart Outhred, RACV’s senior planner, mobility futures, says traditional modes such as driving, walking, cycling and public transport can mix and match with new options – ride-sharing or car share services, micro-mobility devices such as electric scooters (e-scooters), bikes and skateboards, or share bikes.
“There’s a huge amount happening overseas at the moment in the area of micro-mobility that is just starting to bubble up in Victoria,” he says. “Walking or riding to and from the station are the healthiest options, but for time-poor commuters micro-mobility may be a compromise that doesn’t require a car.”
Changing the way cities move people is never straightforward. Planners need to accommodate disruptive technologies that typically evolve faster than laws can change.
Innovation in this space is genuinely positive, but systems need to be well managed and designed.
“E-scooter schemes have seen huge growth in many cities around the world, but it’s vital that the policy settings are right in terms of how they fit with other transport modes and the demands on our street space,” Stuart says.
The issues facing micro-mobility are clear in the example of US company Lime, which is rolling out e-scooters internationally. It’s running a trial in Brisbane, and completed one at Monash University’s Clayton campus last year.
Its scooters are powered by a 250-watt motor and capable of speeds up to 27kmh, offering nimble and efficient pay-as-you-go commuting. Lime can reduce its scooters’ speeds to any set by government. In Victoria, legislation allows electric scooters of up to 200 watts and speeds up to 10kmh on level ground. Therefore, it is effectively illegal to ride higher-powered scooters anywhere but on private property.
Vaughn Allan, an IST transport analyst, says the Victorian government will closely monitor the rollout of e-scooters. “There are some points of wariness from the US experience, such as a higher-than-expected rate of crashes. There is still a question over whether people have the skills to safely operate e-scooters.”
Stuart Outhred cites oBike, the Singapore-based bike share company that departed Melbourne after 12 months, having fallen foul of authorities after bikes were left littering streets, thrown in the Yarra or even hung in trees.
“Innovation in this space is genuinely positive, but systems need to be well managed and designed. Operators need to make sure they’re not creating more problems than they’re solving.”